Green lecture

Topic 1 : collection and conservation

Thi My Hanh DIEP on 11/16/14 at 3:41 PM Print Friendly and PDF

1. Summary of knowledge

Bamboos belong to Poaceae family, to subfamily Bambusoidae, to tribe Bambusae. Since Linné, plant classification is based on flower characteristics. Most species of bamboo flourish at different period and mysteriously that’s why their identification is difficult. The “General Flora of Indochina” (1923) of E. G. and A. Camus is not complete and only concerns 14 genders and 73 species. In the 70’s, Pr. Pham Hoang Ho mentions more than 120 bamboo species in “Flora of Vietnam”. In “Bamboos of Vietnam” (2006) of Nguyen Hoang Nghia, about 200 taxons are listed with short descriptions and pictures.
Industrialists have empirical knowledge on bamboo species that they use for manufacturing, and their way of working bamboo is sometimes lawless. Knowledge acquired in the project could help for identification and could contribute to inventories monitoring and elaboration of sustainable management measures.

2. Research Objectives

We aim to :

  • Take an inventory of
    • Vietnam bamboo species
    • Threatened plants of south eastern Vietnam : collect, protect and multiply them for biodiversity conservation
    • Plants in the village and protect them
  • Establish an inventory of endangered species and to edit maps with their geographical situation (GIS);
  • Constitute a collection of living bamboos and reference herbariums to have plant available for subsequent operations of reintroduction of disappeared or endangered species.
  • Receive students and researchers for a better knowledge of bamboo in order to perpetuate its use and to create new markets.

3. Implemented Means

  • Prospection to collect samples and information
  • Collection of bamboos to plant them in Phu An Botanic Garden
  • Bamboos Herbariums creation for the Ecomuseum
  • Herbariums Exchange with others
  • Scientific Name determination
  • Students training

a/ Prospection to collect samples and information

To reach those objectives, the first step was prospecting to collect bamboos around Viet Nam. Every species has its own uses. Precise identification of species is necessary for systematic studies, sustainable management of this biodiversity and to then know qualities of each species. This would make possible new applications
We visited Provinces most concerned by bamboos in collaboration with Forest and Agriculture Departments which help to find rare specimens. In order to complete collected data, in the future, visitors could signal existence in their region of other bamboos missing in Phu An.
During prospecting, the scientific team travelled with a car with all necessary equipment to collect samples: shovels, peckers, saw, pruning shears, as well as old newspapers and frames to make herbariums. Labels, chemical products (for conservation of little samples), compass, binoculars and a GPS were also carried.
Those expensive operations have been only possible thanks to the help of the Rhône-alpes Region.

b/ Collection of bamboos to replant them in Phu An Botanic Garden

A sample contains :
- A piece of rhizome, if the owner agreed, it is transplanted in the botanic garden
- Some culms part: 2-or-3-internode long with branches starts
- Some sheaths and distinctive leaves
- Flowers if possible

Various measures have to be taken to collect samples. They are all written in a form that mentions the name of the place, its coordinates and the bamboo local name. It also describes the whole bamboo clump. Pictures illustrate this form.

Finally, Binh Duong Province decided to add 3 Ha to the 5000m2 of the Botanic garden already existing. It allows installing 3 to 6 clumps of the same variety (essential to have enough plant equipment necessary for the subsequent operations of reintroduction)

c/ Bamboos herbariums creation for the Ecomuseum

The herbarium is made during the collection with leaves and sheaths, possibly flowers. After drying, the scientists worked again on it in the laboratory and treated and kept in the freezer in – 15 °. The constitution of herbariums will facilitate comparisons with reference herbariums particularly those of the Paris National Natural History Museum’s.

d/ Herbariums exchange with others

It is necessary to prepare several copies of the same sample to make exchanges possible with other herbariums.

e/ Scientific Name determination by

  • Comparing with other herbariums
  • Mobilising a team with specialists and researchers on bamboo.

In most of the cases the scientific name cannot be given on the field. It is determined later by consulting other herbariums and reference works.

4. Established partnerships

  • The Pilat park: credit administrator, they also trained a student to use the SIG tool.
  • The University of Lyon 1: it was established in 2005 to train two students on bamboo taxonomy after it failed with the National Museum of Natural History of Paris.
  • The National Museum of Natural History of Paris: cooperation was re-established in 2006 with taxonomy researches works from Dr. Diep Thi My Hanh, Dr. Sovanmoly HUL and Dr. Pascale CHESSELET.
  • Royal Botanic Gardens of Kew: we contacted them to visit their bamboo collection and invited Dr. Soejatmi DRANSFIELD to the Ecomuseum in Phu An to work on taxonomy.
  • The University of Agriculture and Forest in Thu Duc. Scientific attempts on bamboo resistance were done in the framework of a close cooperation with this University.
  • The University of Grenoble: to prepare research projects on composite materials from bamboo.

These different partnerships are essential to develop the project.

5. Results

5.1. Results of samples and information collecting prospection

The missions were led in 43 of the 64 Vietnam provinces most concerned with bamboos in the North, the Center, the Highlands, The Mekong Delta and South Eastern Vietnam. We collected samples, all in herbarium, that includes :

  • The North: 103 specimens
  • The Center: 42 specimens
  • The Highlands: 59 specimens
  • The South East: 46 specimens
  • The Mekong Delta: 51 specimens

Total : 301 spécimens.

Most samples have a vernacular name which was locally indicated when collecting. We will have to identify it scientifically later.
During prospection, we constitute an important iconography (pictures of the plant in it natural environment) and we collected lots of information about local bamboo uses.

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5.2. Plantation in the Botanic Garden

Establishing a bamboo collection living in the Botanic Garden helped to define transplanting and multiplication methods to provide essential advices to person interested by bamboo cultivation.
Students and researchers can observe the development stages at different time of the year. We are learning to have a better knowledge through reliable determinations and we establish adapted advices for conservation. In the future, this collection will constitute a genetic data bank.

The 231 bamboos living in the Botanic Garden are mostly from the Center, the South East and the Mekong Delta regions. We founded difficult to adapt northern and highlands species, that may be due to dry season transplant and climate differences.


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Photo 1 : Une variété de bambou collectée sur les Hauts Plateaux, plantée dans le conservatoire.

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Photo 2: Une variété de bambou collectée ( Gigantochloa sp.)
dans la Région Sud Est, plantée dans le conservatoire.

5.3. Bamboo herbarium for the Botanic Garden

More than 300 samples were collected.

5.4. Exchange of herbariums

The exchange was done with :

  • The University of Lyon 1 in 2005
  • The National Museum of Natural History of Paris in 2006 (appendix 3)
  • The Royal Botanic Gardens of Kew in 2006 (appendix 4)

5.5. Scientific names resoluteness

Scientific names are not easy to determine because there is no bamboo specialists in Vietnam and because of varied and mysterious flourishing periods.

The expedition team did :

  • data collection in the field and pictures
  • herbariums
  • bamboo anatomic description
  • bibliographic synthesis
  • data computerization

With these data, we compared bamboo herbariums. It was made in cooperation with the University of Lyon 1, the National Museum of Natural History of Paris (France) and the Royal Botanic Gardens of Kew (UK).

Some people helped with advices this project :

  • A bamboo specialist: Dr. Soejatmi Dransfield
  • Botanists: Pr. Le Cong Kiet, Dr. S. Hul and Dr. P. Chesselet
  • The University of Jussieu with the XPER2 software: Pr. Régine Vignes - Lebbe

You can find the results in the following appendixes:

  • Appendix 5: example of morpho anatomic form from their vernacular names
  • Appendix 6: Example of a synthesis of bamboo characteristics
  • Appendix 7: Example of histological cuts made from primary or secondary branches fragments.

5.6. Publications

1. DIEP My Hanh, et al., 2005. Collection des variétés de bambou du Viet Nam. . Rapport scientifique après 3 ans de prospection des Bambous du Viet Nam, 155 pp.

2. DIEP My Hanh, Nguyen thi My Lien, 2006. Ethnobotanique du bambou du Viet Nam. Rapport scientifique de la Conférence scientifique de l’Université des Sciences Naturelles, novembre 2006.

“Le bambou est mon frère”, formule gravée sur un bloc de pierre dans la collection des bambous au Royal Botanic Gardens of Kew, est un proverbe vietnamien qui souligne l'importance du bambou dans la vie des Vietnamiens. L’ethnobotanique est l'étude des utilisations des plantes par les peuples. Au Vietnam, le bambou est très employé pour :
- l’alimentation à partir des turions tels que Manh Tong (Dendrocalamus asper Schult f. Backer) ;
- la fabrication de : statues, baguettes, cure-dents, ustensiles de cuisine, sacs, écrans, nattes avec le Truc (Bambusa textilis McClure)
 de : meubles, tables, chaises, lits, et coffrets avec leTam vong (Thyrsostachys siamensis (Kurz) Gamble) ;
 d’instruments de musique comme "dan" (xylophone) et "trong" (tambourin) souvent fait avec Phyllostachys sp..
Plus particulièrement, les minorités emploient des quantités abondantes de bambou :
- pour la réalisation d’échaffaudages ;
- pour la construction de leur maison avec Mai (Dendrocalamus strictus (Robx.) Nees) ;
- pour établir des haies autour des maisons et du village ou pour la décoration ;
- pour la fabrication de conduites d'eau pour l’irrigation et la production d'électricité ;
- pour faire cuire le riz à l'intérieur du chaume, chaume également utilisé comme combustible ;
- pour des rituels sacrificatoires ;
- pour faire des bateaux et des ponts ;
- pour produire la fibre et la pulpe ;
- pour faire des médications.
Dans le passé, le bambou a été appelé "Arbre des pauvres". Maintenant, le bambou est considéré comme un arbre de qualité environnementale en raison de sa croissance rapide, de sa possibilité de se substituer au bois, ce qui contribue à réduire la déforestation et l’érosion.
Avec les technologies modernes, le bambou comprimé et traité permet d’obtenir des poteaux, des planches, avec lesquels il entre dans la fabrication d’objets de haute qualité. Le bambou est décrit dans les chansons populaires, les proverbes, les poésies et l'image nationale.

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Photo 3 : Les instruments musicaux

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Photo 4 : Le pont en bambou chez les minorités  « Tay » à Ha Giang.

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Photo 5 : Fabrication de stores en bambou.

3. DIEP My Hanh, 2006. Biodiversité du Bambou du Viet Nam. Rapport scientifique de la Conférence scientifique de l’Université des Sciences Naturelles, novembre 2006.
L’Ecomusée du Bambou et le Conservatoire botanique de Phu An, projet quadripartite entre la Région Rhône-Alpes, la Province de Binh Duong, le Parc National du Pilat et l'Université des Sciences Naturelles, qui inclut recherche, formation, conservation des plantes et développement durable, contribue à améliorer la vie des habitants grâce à l’écotourisme.
Notre travail a montré que le bambou vietnamien est très divers. Les descriptions détaillées des échantillons rassemblés sur le terrain sont importantes pour la classification aussi bien que pour les recherches dans le domaine de l’utilisation du bambou à l'avenir. La collection des bambous est disponible pour leur identification scientifique, opération qui demandera encore beaucoup de temps et d’efforts.

4. Nguyen The Nang, Phan Huynh Thach, Vo Kieu Minh Trang, DIEP My Hanh, Hoang thi Thanh Huong, 2006. Physical mechanical properties of somes bamboo’s species in Viet Nam Rapport scientifique de la Conférence scientifique de l’Université des Sciences Naturelles, novembre 2006.

Les caractéristiques physiques d'une dizaine de variétés ont été déterminées, essentiellement les données mécaniques de résistance au cisaillement transversale, à la compression axiale et à la flexion statique ainsi que les caractéristiques physiques des fibres : Tre mo Bambusa arundinacea. Retz, Tre gai Bambusa blumeana. J.A. & J.H. Schultes.Cv blumeana, Tre tau Gigantochloa levis.(Blanco) Merr, Luong Thanh Hoa Dendrocalamus barbatus. (Hsueh & D.Z.Li), Manh tong: Dendrocalamus asper. (Schult.f.) Backer ex Heyne, Tre xiem Bambusa tulda (Roxb), Gay Ha Tinh Dendrocalamus aff brandisii. (Munro) Kurz, Tre hoa giay (Ha Tinh) Bambusa flexuosa. Munro, Tre hoa Nghe An Bambusa blumeana. J.A. & J.H. Schultes.

5. DIEP, M.H., HUL, S., CHESSELET, P. & VIGNE-LEBBE, R. (2007). Analyse des caractères morphologiques pour l’identification des Bambous du Viêtnam ; en cours de rédaction, c’est un article en trois langues : français, vietnamien et anglais, par exemple pour le chaume :

Chaume (Thân) (Culm)
* Taille du chaume (Chiều cao thân) (Size of culm) :
1. nain: inférieur à 1 m (rất nhỏ: nhỏ hơn 1 m) (dwarf : less than 1 m),
2. petit: 1 à 3 m (nhỏ: 1 đến 3 m) (small : 1 to 3 m),
3. moyen: 3 à 7m (trung bình: 3 đến 7 m) (medium : 3 to 7 m),
4. grand: 7 à 20 m (lớn: 7 đến 20 m) (large : 7 to 20 m),
5. géant: supérieure à 20 m (rất lớn: lớn hơn 20 m) (giant : greater than 20 m)

* Diamètre du chaume (đường kính thân) (Culm diameter) :
1. 1 à 5 mm (1 đến 5 mm) (1 to 5 mm),
2. 5 à 10 mm (5 đến 10 mm) (5 to 10 mm),
3. 1 à 5 cm (1 đến 5 cm) (1 to 5 cm),
4. 5 à 10 cm (5 đến 10 cm) (5 to 10 cm),
5. 10 à 20 cm (10 đến 20 cm) (10 to 20 cm),
6. supérieur à 20 cm (lớn hơn 20 cm) (greater than 20 cm)

* Coloration du chaume (Màu sắc thân) (Colouration of the culm) :
1. unie (đồng nhất) (uniform),

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2. non unie (không đồng nhất) (not uniform)

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* Couleur unie du chaume (Màu sắc đồng nhất của thân) (Uniform colour of the culm) :
1. vert (xanh lá cây) (green),

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2. bleu (xanh lục) (blue),
3. jaune (vàng) (yellow),
4. noir (đen) (black),
5. brun (nâu) (brown),

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6. vert grisâtre (xanh xám) (grey-green),
7. vert jaunâtre (xanh vàng) (yellowish-green),
8. vert olivâtre (xanh lá mạ) (olive-green),
9. vert blanc,
10. rouge